Tuesday, October 28, 2014

A00261 - John-Roger, New Age Spiritual

John-Roger, right, founder of the Movement of Spiritual Inner Awareness, in Jerusalem in 1984. CreditDoug Gibson
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John-Roger, a self-anointed spiritual adviser and preacher of human potential who founded a New Age movement that for a time achieved an aura of glamour and attracted celebrity adherents while provoking along the way accusations that he was running a cult, died on Wednesday in Santa Monica, Calif. He was 80.
The cause was pneumonia, said Mark Lurie, the treasurer and spokesman for John-Roger’s church, the Movement of Spiritual Inner Awareness. Its acronym, MSIA, is sometimes pronounced aloud as “messiah.”
The church, which was incorporated in 1971, is nondenominational, with familiar religious and New Age tenets at its core. Christ is its leading figure, but in concert with some Asian traditions, it holds that the individual soul, mired in the earthly world, can be liberated with prayer and meditation — or spiritual exercises, as John-Roger called them — and the expression of unconditional love.
John-Roger, who was known as Roger Hinkins until he adopted his hyphenated name after what he said was a near-death experience in 1963, taught meditations that were intended to help adherents reduce stress, gain confidence, banish negative thoughts and feel a connection to God. He was referred to within the church as the embodiment of the Mystical Traveler, a term he coined to describe the spiritual force that is inside everyone.
John-Roger in 1974.CreditBetty Bennett
Disliking the label guru, John-Roger called himself a “way-shower.” He often simplified his philosophy in aphorisms expressing good will and the possibility of fulfilling one’s potential: “Take care of yourself so you can take care of others.” “Don’t hurt yourself and don’t hurt others.” “Use everything for your upliftment and growth.”
Charismatic and enterprising, John-Roger expanded his platform. In 1976 he started what is now known as the University of Santa Monica, an unaccredited school operating independently of the church and specializing in what it calls “spiritual psychology”; and the Peace Theological Seminary and College of Philosophy, the educational arm of the church.
In 1978 he started the Insight Training Seminars, popular and enduring self-help programs for adults, teenagers and businesses, and in the 1980s the church began sponsoring an annual event at which it presented the International Integrity Awards to figures like Desmond Tutu, Mother Teresa, Jonas Salk and Stevie Wonder.
All of this gave the church and John-Roger a high profile, especially around Los Angeles, and they attracted adherents including Arianna Huffington, the author, columnist and later founder of The Huffington Post; the actresses Sally Kirkland and Leigh Taylor-Young; and Carl Wilson of the Beach Boys.
Scandal erupted in the 1980s when The Los Angeles Times and People magazine reported that disenchanted former members of the church had denounced it as cultlike and authoritarian and accused John-Roger of a variety of misdeeds, including betraying a vow of poverty, sexual misconduct and threatening apostates with physical violence. He denied the accusations, though he soon withdrew from the public eye.
In 1988 he passed the torch as spiritual director of the church to John Morton (who remains in the role), though he retained the title of spiritual adviser and continued to write, make films and appear at book signings, fund-raisers and other events.
The scrutiny of the church eventually waned, though Ms. Huffington’s affiliation with it caused a flurry of publicity in 1994 when her husband at the time, Michael, then a California congressman, ran unsuccessfully for the Senate.
According to Mr. Lurie, there are currently about 4,100 active “students” within the church, mostly in the United States, but also in Australia, Europe, South America and Nigeria.
John-Roger was born Roger Delano Hinkins on Sept. 24, 1934, in Rains, Utah, a town that no longer exists, to Parley Hinkins Jr., a coal miner, and his wife, Irma. He graduated from the University of Utah, where he studied psychology.
He was the author or co-author of several books, including “Spiritual Warrior: The Art of Spiritual Living,” “Living the Spiritual Principles of Health and Well-Being” and “Forgiveness: The Key to the Kingdom.”
He is survived by a brother, Delile Hinkins, and a sister, Linda Hansen.
In the early 1960s, John-Roger was still known as Mr. Hinkins, a high school English teacher in Rosemead, Calif., near Los Angeles. It was in 1963, he said, that he experienced a revelation that pointed him toward spiritual teaching. It came after he emerged from nine days in a coma, which he told The Los Angeles Times in 1988 resulted from a kidney operation gone wrong.
(In a later documentary film about him, “Mystical Traveler,” he said he had been in a car accident. Mr. Lurie said in an email that both were true: The accident had caused a troublesome kidney stone.)
In any case, he told The Times, when he woke up, “there was another being in me, and he called himself John.” He added: “When I opened my eyes, I remember my mother sitting there saying, ‘Who are you?’ and the voice said, ‘I am John,’ and she said, ‘Is Roger there?’ He says, ‘Yes, he’s in here, too.’ ”

A00260 - Raphael Ravenscroft, Saxophonist on "Baker Street"

Raphael RavenscroftCreditRoy Anderson, via Press Association
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Raphael Ravenscroft, who played one of the most recognizable saxophone solos in popular music on Gerry Rafferty’s 1978 hit“Baker Street,” died on Sunday in Exeter, England. He was 60.    
His death was announced by his family. No cause was specified, but the BBC said he was believed to have had a heart attack.
Mr. Ravenscroft’s bluesy eight-bar saxophone break helped make “Baker Street,” a haunting soft-rock tune, a hit for Mr. Rafferty, who was beginning a solo career after the breakup of his group Stealers Wheel. It reached No. 3 in Britain and No. 2 in the United States, and has continued to receive radio play through the years.    
In a 2011 radio interview, Mr. Ravenscroft said that he didn’t like listening to “Baker Street” because his playing was out of tune. But his daughter, the artist Scarlett Raven, told the BBC that he was “very proud of ‘Baker Street’ ” because “it made people feel good.”
Mr. Ravenscroft received a flat fee for his work on the song, which made Mr. Rafferty a fortune, but it kick-started his career. A virtual unknown when he played on “Baker Street,” he went on to become a busy studio musician, working with Pink Floyd, Abba, Marvin Gaye and others.
Mr. Rafferty died in 2011.  

Monday, October 27, 2014

A00259 - Ghulam Azam, Leader of the Jamaat-e-Islami Party


Ghulam Azam in 2012. CreditShawkat Khan/Associated Press

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Ghulam Azam, a former Bangladeshi Islamist party leader, whose imprisonment on war crimes charges set off violent protests last year, died on Thursday in a government hospital in Dhaka. He was 91.
His death was announced by a hospital spokesman.
His supporters clashed with the police after a special tribunal sentenced Mr. Azam, a former chief of the Jamaat-e-Islami Party, to 90 years in prison on 61 charges of war crimes during the 1971 Bangladesh war of independence from Pakistan.
Bangladesh blames the Pakistani army and local collaborators for the deaths of three million people and the rape of 200,000 women during the nine-month war.
Mr. Azam led Jamaat-e-Islami in what was then East Pakistan. His party openly campaigned against independence, and Mr. Azam toured the Middle East to mobilize support for Pakistan. The party has denied committing atrocities.
Mr. Azam led the party until 2000, and was still considered its spiritual leader.
Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina set up the tribunal in 2010 after pledging as a candidate in 2008 to prosecute those responsible for war crimes. Her party won the election in a landslide.
Mr. Azam was the third Islamist leader to be convicted of collaborating with the Pakistani authorities.
The main opposition party, the Bangladesh Nationalist Party, led by former Prime Minister Khaleda Zia, contends that the tribunal is politically motivated, intending to weaken the opposition.
Ghulam Azam (Bengaliগোলাম আযম; 7 November 1922 – 23 October 2014) was a Bangladeshi politician who led theJamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh until 2000. [3][4][5][6] [7] Azam opposed the independence of Bangladesh during the 1971Bangladesh Liberation War.[8][9]
On 15 July 2013 a Bangladeshi special tribunal (the International Crimes Tribunal) found Azam guilty of war crimessuch as conspiring, planning, incitement to and complicity in committing genocide, and gave him a 90-year prison sentence.[5][6] The judges unanimously agreed that Azam deserved capital punishment for his activity during Liberation war of Bangladesh but was given a lenient punishment because of his age and health condition.[3][4][10][11] The trial has been criticized by several international observers, including Human Rights Watch and Amnesty InternationalHuman Rights Watch, which was initially supportive of a trial subsequently criticized its "strong judicial bias towards the prosecution and grave violations of due process rights", calling the trial process deeply flawed and unable to meet international fair trial standards.[12][13][14][15] Notably, it was at the center of the 2012 ICT Skype controversy.[16]
As a leader of the Jamaat-e-Islami, he led the formation of the Shanti Committees which were formed at the time of the Liberation War alongside other pro-Pakistan Bengali leaders.[17] Azam was accused of forming paramilitary groups for the Pakistani Army, including Razakars, and Al-Badr.[18] These militias opposed the Mukti Bahini revolutionaries who fought for the independence of Bangladesh, and also stand accused of war crimes.[17][19][20][21] Azam's citizenship of Bangladesh had been cancelled by the Bangladeshi Government because of his role during the Bangladesh Liberation War.[22] He lived in Bangladesh illegally without any authorised Bangladeshi visa from 1978 to 1994, when the Bangladesh Supreme Court reinstated his citizenship.[23][24][25]
Azam was arrested on 11 January 2012 on the charges of committing war crimes during the Bangladesh Liberation War by the International Crimes Tribunal in Bangladesh.[26][27] The tribunal rejected the plea of bail after noting that there were formal charges against Azam of which it had taken cognisance.[28][29][30][31] He died of a stroke on 23 October 2014 at BSMMU.[32]


Azam was born on 7 November 1922 in the then Bengal province of British India, the eldest son of Maulana Ghulam Kabir and Sayeda Ashrafunnisa. He attended amadrasa in his village of Birgaon, NabinagarBrahmanbaria and completed his secondary school education in Dhaka. He then joined Dhaka University, completing BA and MA degrees in Political Science.[25]

Early political career


While studying at the University of Dhaka Azam became active in student politics and was elected as the General Secretary of the Dhaka University Central Students' Union (DUCSU) for two consecutive years between 1947 and 1949. While General Secretary of the DUCSU Azam in 1947 submitted a memorandum on the union's behalf to the then Prime Minister of Pakistan Liaquat Ali Khan, demanding that Bengali be made a state language along with Urdu.[25] Later in 1970 in a news paper article Azam said "Bangla was a wrong decision with regard to the establishment of Pakistan since Urdu was widely used and all Muslims of the Indian subcontinent understand it."[33]


In 1950, Azam left Dhaka to teach political science at the Government Carmichael College in Rangpur. While there, he joined the Tablighi Jamaat religious movement and Tamaddun Majlish and headed both organisations' Rangpur branches until 1954. During this time, he became influenced by the writings of Abul Ala Maududi and he joined Maududi's party Jamaat-e-Islami in 1954, and was later elected as the Secretary General of Jamaat-e-Islami's East Pakistan branch.[25]
In 1964, the government of Ayub Khan banned Jamaat-e-Islami and its leaders, including Azam, was imprisoned for eight months without trial. He played a prominent role as the general secretary of the Pakistan Democratic Movement formed in 1967 and later as a member of Democratic Action Committee formed in 1969 to transform the anti-Ayub movement into a popular uprising. In 1969, he became the Ameer of the Jamaat in East Pakistan. He and other opposition leaders including future President of Bangladesh Sheikh Mujibur Rahman took part in the Round Table Conference held in Rawalpindi in 1969 to solve the prevailing political impasse in Pakistan.[25] On 13 March 1969, Khan announced his acceptance of their two fundamental demands of parliamentary government and direct elections.[34]
In the runup to the 1970 general election, Azam together with leaders of a number of other parties in East Pakistan (including the Pakistan Democratic Party,National Awami PartyJamiat Ulema-e-Islam and the Pakistan National League) protested at the Awami League approach to electioneering for, accusing them of breaking up public meetings, physical attacks on political opponents and the looting and destruction of party offices.[35] During 1970, while Azam was the head of Jamaat-e-Islami East Pakistan, a number of political rallies, including rallies of Jamaat-e-Islami, were attacked by armed mobs alleged to be incited by the Awami League.[36][37]

Bangladesh Liberation War

Activities during 1971 War

During the Bangladesh Liberation War, Azam took a political stance in support of unified Pakistan,[38] and repeatedly denounced Awami League and Mukti Bahinisecessionists,[39] whose declared aim after 26 March 1971 became the establishment of an independent state of Bangladesh in place of East Pakistan. Excerpts from Azam's speeches after 25 March 1971 used to be published in the spokespaper of Jamaat named The Daily Sangram. On 20 June 1971, Azam reaffirmed his support for the Pakistani army by stating that 'the army has eradicated nearly all criminals of East Pakistan'.[39]
During the war of 1971, it is alleged that Azam played a central role in the formation of Peace Committees on 11 April 1971, which declared the independence movement to be a conspiracy hatched by India.[17][40] It is also alleged that Azam was one of the founding members of this organisation.[17] The Peace Committee members were drawn from Azam's Jamaat-e-Islami, the Muslim League and Biharis.[41] The Peace Committee served as a front for the army, informing on the civil administration as well as the general public. They were also in charge of confiscating and redistribution of shops and lands from Hindu and pro-independence Bengalis, mainly relatives and friends of Mukti Bahini fighters. Almost 10 million Bangladeshis fled to neighbouring India as refugees. The Shanti Committee has also been alleged to have recruited Razakars.[18] The first recruits included 96 Jamaat party members, who started training in an Ansar camp at Shahjahan Ali Road, Khulna.[42][43] During Azam's leadership of Jamaat-e-Islami, Ashraf Hossain, a leader of Jamaat's student wing Islami Chhatra Sangha, created the Al-Badr militia in Jamalpur District on 22 April 1971.[44] On 12 April 1971, Azam and Matiur Rahman Nizami led demonstrations denouncing the independence movement as an Indian conspiracy.[45]
During the war Azam travelled the then West Pakistan to consult the Pakistani leaders.[46] Azam declared that his party (Jamaat) is trying its best to curb the activities of pro-independence "Miscreants".[47] Azam took part in meetings with General Yahiya Khan, the military dictator of Pakistan, and other military leaders, to organise the campaign against Bangladeshi independence.[46]
On 12 August 1971, Azam declared in a statement published in the Daily Sangram that "the supporters of the so-called Bangladesh Movement are the enemies of Islam, Pakistan, and Muslims".[48] He also called for an all out war against India.[49]
Azam is also alleged to be the chief protagonist and to present the blueprint of the killing of the intellectuals in a meeting with Rao Forman Ali in Early September 1971.[50] In accordance with this blue print, the largest number of Bengali intellectuals assassinations performed by Pakistani Army and the local collaborators, on 14 December 1971.


On 20 June 1971, Azam declared in Lahore that the Hindu minority in East Pakistan, under the leadership of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, are conspiring to secede from Pakistan.[51] On 12 August 1971, Azam declared in a statement published in the Daily Sangram that "the supporters of the so-called Bangladesh Movement are the enemies of Islam, Pakistan, and Muslims".[52] For his part, Azam denies all such accusation and challenges that proof be brought forward to justify them.[53]However, he later admitted that he was on the list of collaborators of the Pakistani army, but denied he was a war criminal.[40]
The military junta of Yahya Khan decided to call an election in an attempt to legitimise themselves. On 12 October 1971 Yahya Khan declared that an election will be held from 25 November to 9 December. Azam decided to take part in this election. On 15 October, the Pakistani government suddenly declared that 15 candidates were elected without any competition. According to the declaration of 2 November as many as 53 candidates were elected without any competition.[54] In this election Jamaat won 14 of the uncontested seats.[55]
Former caretaker government adviser, human rights activist and witness for the prosecution Sultana Kamal said- "In brutality, Ghulam Azam is synonymous with German ruler Hitler who had influential role in implementation and execution of genocide and ethnic cleansing".[56] In response to this statement the defence cousel pointed out that the comparison was a fallacy and 'fake with malicious intention' as Hitler held state power, which Azam did not and that in 1971 General Tikka Khan and Yahya Khan held state power.[57] Prosecutor of ICT Zead-Al-Malum said- “He was the one making all the decisions, why would he need to be on any committee? Being Hitler was enough for Hitler in World War II.”[58]

Alleged Anti-Bangladesh Lobbying after 1971

After the victory of the Joint forces of the Indian Army and Mukti Bahini over Pakistan on 16 December 1971 a new nation named Bangladesh was born. Azam continued his anti-Bangladesh and pro-Pakistan activities even after 1971. He tried to convince many political leaders of Middle-East and Pakistan not to support the new born nation. A complete description of these lobbies are found in the writings of Dhaka University Professor Anisuzzaman.[23] Mr. Anisuzzaman submitted all the allegations against Golam Azam to the People's Court in 1992. People's Court was established as a mass movement to try war criminals and anti-independence activists by Jahanara Imam and others. Jahanara Imam held this unprecedented Peoples' Court as a symbolic trial of Azam where thousands of people gathered and the court gave verdict that Azam's offences committed during the Liberation War deserve capital punishment.[59]
According to Prothom Alo, three intellectuals submitted allegations of war crimes against Azam. The activities regarding Bengali culture were submitted by Syed Shamsul Huq, alleged war crimes during 1971 were detailed by Borhanuddin Khan Jahangir and his pro-Pakistan lobbying after 1971 was detailed by Anisuzzaman.[23] Notable allegations of pro-Pakistan lobbying of Azam after 1971 is as follows:[23]
  • After the liberation of Bangladesh Azam, staying in Pakistan, created an organisation named Purbo Pakistan Punoruddhar Committee (East Pakistan Revival Committee) along with anti-Bangladesh activists like Mahmud Ali. Azam tried to strengthen the international movement to re-establish East Pakistan. Accordingly he kept claiming himself as the Ameer of East Pakistan Jamaat-e-Islami many years after the elimination of East Pakistan.
  • In 1972 Azam formed Purbo Pakistan Punoruddhar Committee in London and conspired with others to replace Bangladesh with East Pakistan. In 1973, he lectured against Bangladesh in the annual conference of Federation of Students' Islamic Societies held in Manchester and conference of UK Islamic Commission held in Lester. In 1974, he arranged a meeting of Purbo Pakistan Punoruddhar Committee with Pakistanis like Mahmud Ali. As they had already failed to establish a Pakistan within Bangladesh, they decided to lead their movement towards the formation of a confederation combining Bangladesh and Pakistan. In this meeting Azam explained the necessity of working for the movement within Bangladesh though it was a bit risky then. In, 1977 in a meeting held in the Holy Trinity Church College, Azam expressed it again. He came to Bangladesh in 1978 with a Pakistani passport and Bangladeshi visa only to make his dream of Pakistan-Bangladesh confederation come true.
  • Azam participated in the International Islamic Youth Conference held in Riyadh in 1972 and begged the help of all Muslim countries to re-establish East Pakistan. From 1973 to 1976 he met Saudi King seven times and asked him not to acknowledge Bangladesh and never to help this country by any means. He lectured against Bangladesh again in the international conference arranged by Rabeta-e-Alam Al-Islami in Mecca in 1974 and at King Abdul Aziz University in 1977.
  • Azam lobbyied against the acknowledgment of new born Bangladesh in the conference of Foreign ministers of the Muslim countries held in Bengazi in 1973. In the same year he lectured in the Islamic Youth Conference held in Tripoli which was clearly against the independence and sovereignty of Bangladesh.
  • In 1973 Azam urged everybody to participate in the movement of combining Bangladesh with Pakistan in the annual conference of Muslim Students' Association of America and Canada held at Michigan State University.
  • Azam lectured against Bangladesh again in 1977, in the international conference of Islamic Federation of Students' Organizations held at Istanbul.[23]

Leader of Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh

Government of newly independent Bangladesh, banned Jamaat-e-Islami and cancelled Azam's citizenship due to his alleged role during the Bangladesh Liberation War.[22] Azam lived in exile in London until he was allowed to return home in 1978.[25]
Jamaat's rehabilitation began when Ziaur Rahman became president after a coup in 1975 and lifted the previous ban on religious parties. In 1977, Zia removed secularism in the constitution, replacing it with Islamic ideals, further clearing the way for Jamaat-e-Islami to return to political participation.[25] In 1978 Azam returned to Bangladesh on a temporary visa with a Pakistani passport and stayed as a Pakistani national after his visa expired, refusing to leave a country he considered his home by birth-right.[23][24]
In the 1980s, Azam was particularly critical of the military rule of General Ershad after he seized power in a bloodless coup in 1982 and Jamaat-e-Islami took part in demonstrations and strikes as well as other opposition parties such as the Awami League and the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP). He proposed a caretaker government system to facilitate free and fair elections, which was adopted in 1990. In the Bangladeshi general election, 1991, Jamaat-e-Islami won 18 seats and its support allowed the BNP to form a government.[25]
During this time, he acted unofficially as the Ameer of Jamaat-e-Islami until 1991, when he was officially elected to the post. This led to the government arresting him and an unofficial court called The People's Court was established by civilians such as Jahanara Imam to try alleged war criminals and anti-independence activists. Imam held a symbolic trial of Azam where thousands of people gathered and gave the verdict that Azam's offences committed during the Liberation War deserve capital punishment.[60] In 1994, he fought a lengthy legal battle which resulted in the Supreme Court of Bangladesh ruling in his favour and restoring his nationality.[25]
In the 1996 election, Jamaat won only three seats, and most of their candidates lost their deposits.[61] Azam announced his retirement from active politics in late 2000. He was succeeded by Motiur Rahman Nizami.[7]

War crimes trial

Arrest and incarceration

On 11 January 2012 Azam was arrested on charges of committing crimes against humanity and peace, genocide and war crimes in 1971 by the International Crimes Tribunal. His petition for bail was rejected by the ICT, and he was sent to Dhaka Central Jail. However, after three hours he was sent to Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) hospital for a medical check-up due to his old age. According to the Daily Star, Azam was allowed to remain in a hospital prison cell despite being declared fit for trial by a medical team on 15 January.[62][63] The same paper later acknowledged that he had been placed there due to his "ailing condition".[64]
Azam's health has deteriorated rapidly since being imprisoned.[65] His wife, Syeda Afifa Azam was reported in several newspapers as being shocked at his treatment, stating that he has become very weak and has lost 3 kilograms in a month due to malnutrition.[39] She described his treatment as "a gross violation of human rights" even though he was kept in a hospital prison cell.[66][67]
Azam's wife complains about him being denied proper family visits and access to books, saying that this amounted to "mental torture".[68] The Daily Star reported that Azam's wife and his counsels were allowed to meet him on 18 February.[69] On 25 February 2012, The Daily Star reported that Azam's nephew was denied a visit at the last minute just as he was about to enter the hospital prison room. This is despite the application for the visit being initially approved.[70]
Islamic activists from different countries expressed their concern for Mr. Azam. The International Union of Muslim Scholars, chaired by Yusuf al-Qaradawi called the arrest "disgraceful", and called on the Bangladesh government to release him immediately, stating that "the charge of Professor Ghulam Azam and his fellow scholars and Islamic activists of committing war crimes more than forty years ago is irrational and cannot be accepted".[71]
The judicial process under which Azam is on trial has been criticised by international organisations such as Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International.[72][73][74] So far, the ICT has sentenced two of the accused to death and has given a life sentence to another.


Azam was convicted of war crimes during the Bangladesh Liberation War by the International Crimes Tribunal-1 of Bangladesh.[10] The charges against Azam were conspiring, planning, incitement to and complicity in committing genocide, crimes against humanity, and other war crimes and torture and killing of a police officer Shiru Mia and three other civilians. He was found guilty on all five charges and sentenced to 90 years in prison. The judges unanimously agreed that Azam deserved capital punishment but was given a lenient punishment because of his age and health condition.[10][11]
In a press release, Jamaat Acting Secretary General Rafiqul Islam said the International Crimes Tribunal's verdict against Azam was nothing but a reflection of what AL-led 14-party alliance leaders had said against him [Ghulam Azam] in different meetings.[75] Pro BNP news paper Daily Amardesh, whose publication is currently ceased for publishing false news to instigate violence reported that the evidence presented before the court against Ghulam Azam consisted of newspaper clippings published during 1971."[76][77]


Ghulam Azam died of a stroke on 23 October 2014 at 10:10 pm at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University while serving jail sentences for crimes against humanity during Bangladesh Liberation War. His death was reported by Abdul Majid Bhuiyan, director of BSMMU. Ghulam was kept on life support since 8 pm of that day.[78][79] He was also suffering from kidney problems.[80] Azam was buried at their family graveyard at MoghbazarDhaka on 25 October. His namaz-e-janazawas held at the Baitul Mokarram which is the national mosque of Bangladesh. Different quarters of the country protested over taking the body to the national mosque of this high profile war criminal who opposed the independence of the country.[81]


Ghulam Azam (Bengali: গোলাম আযম; November 7, 1922 – October 23, 2014) was a Bangladeshi politician who led the Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh until 2000.  Azam opposed the independence of Bangladesh during the 1971 Bangladesh Liberation War. 

On July 15, 2013, a Bangladeshi special tribunal (the International Crimes Tribunal) found Azam guilty of war crimes such as conspiring, planning, incitement to and complicity in committing genocide, and gave him a 90-year prison sentence. The judges unanimously agreed that Azam deserved capital punishment for his activity during the Liberation War but was given a lenient punishment because of his age and health condition.  The trial has been criticized by several international observers, including Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International. Human Rights Watch, which was initially supportive of a trial subsequently criticized its "strong judicial bias towards the prosecution and grave violations of due process rights", calling the trial process deeply flawed and unable to meet international fair trial standards. 

As a leader of the Jamaat-e-Islami, Azam led the formation of the Shanti Committees which were formed at the time of the Liberation War alongside other pro-Pakistan Bengali leaders. Azam was accused of forming paramilitary groups for the Pakistani Army, including Razakars, and Al-Badr.  These militias opposed the Mukti Bahini revolutionaries who fought for the independence of Bangladesh, and also stand accused of war crimes.  Azam's citizenship of Bangladesh had been cancelled by the Bangladeshi Government because of his role during the Bangladesh Liberation War. He lived in Bangladesh illegally without any authorized Bangladeshi visa from 1978 to 1994, when the Bangladesh Supreme Court reinstated his citizenship.

Azam was arrested on January 11, 2012 on the charges of committing war crimes during the Bangladesh Liberation War by the International Crimes Tribunal in Bangladesh. The tribunal rejected the plea of bail after noting that there were formal charges against Azam of which it had taken cognisance. He died of a stroke on October 23, 2014 at BSMMU.