Thursday, March 27, 2014

A00002 - Ahmad Tejan Kabbah, President of Sierra Leone












Photo

Former President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah of Sierra Leone, who oversaw the end of the country's brutal 11-year civil war, died at 82 in Freetown.CreditGeorge Osodi/Associated Press

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Ahmad Tejan Kabbah, who as president of Sierra Leone was widely credited with returning peace to his West African nation after years of brutal civil war, died on Thursday at his home in Freetown, the country’s capital. He was 82.
His death was announced by John Benjamin, a friend and a former chairman of the Sierra Leone People’s Party.
Mr. Kabbah led Sierra Leone both during and after an 11-year civil war in which some 120,000 people were killed, many gruesomely. He was praised for instituting a disarmament program that led to the official end of the war in 2002, with the help of a United Nations peacekeeping force and British military trainers. But after the war, he was criticized for failing to lift his country out of poverty.
Born to a Muslim family in eastern Sierra Leone on Feb. 16, 1932, Mr. Kabbah received a Christian education and joined the civil service in 1959. 
After the Sierra Leone People’s Party, to which he belonged, was defeated in elections in 1968, he lost his job, and his property was confiscated. He moved to Britain, where he studied law and became a jurist.
He joined the United Nations Development Program in 1970, and for the next 22 years worked in the United States and several African countries. In 1992, a year after the rebel Revolutionary United Front began a bloody insurrection, Mr. Kabbah quit the United Nations and was named president of a national council set up by a military junta to pave the way for a return to multiparty politics and draw up a new constitution.
Mr. Kabbah was elected president of Sierra Leone in March 1996, and that November he signed an accord with the rebel leader Foday Sankoh. But in May 1997 he was overthrown in a coup and fled to Guinea. Sierra Leone’s new junta allied itself with the Revolutionary United Front.
In February 1998, after fierce fighting, the troops of a West African regional force led by Nigeria chased the junta out of Freetown, paving the way for Mr. Kabbah’s return. But in January 1999, rebels attacked Freetown once again.
That July, Mr. Kabbah and Mr. Sankoh signed a peace accord and agreed to share power. Around the same time, United Nations peacekeepers were dispatched to Sierra Leone. But in May 2000, the Revolutionary United Front reneged on its pledges by taking some 500 peacekeepers hostage.
When the situation worsened, Britain sent armed forces to end the crisis.
Mr. Sankoh was imprisoned, and Mr. Kabbah began a disarmament program that led to the official end of the war in January 2002. He stepped down in 2007.

***

Alhaji Ahmad Tejan Kabbah (February 16, 1932 – March 13, 2014) was the third President of Sierra Leone from 1996 to 1997 and again from 1998 to 2007. An economist and attorney by professions, Kabbah spent many years working for the United Nations Development Programme.  He retired from the United Nations and returned to Sierra Leone in 1992.
In early 1996, Kabbah was elected leader of the Sierra Leone People's Party (SLPP) and the party's presidential candidate in the 1996 presidential election. He was elected President of Sierra Leone in the 1996 presidential election with 59% of the vote defeating his closest rival John Karefa-Smart of the United National People's Party (UNPP) who had 40% in the runoff vote and conceded defeat. International observers declared the election free and fair. In his inauguration speech in Freetown, Kabbah promised to end the civil war, which he indeed achieved later in his presidency.

An ethnic Mandingo, Kabbah was Sierra Leone's first Muslim head of state.  Kabbah was born in Pendembu, Kailahun District in Eastern Sierra Leone, though he was largely raised in the capital Freetown. 

Most of Kabbah's time in office was influenced by the civil war with the Revolutionary United Front, led by Foday Sankoh, which involved him being temporarily ousted by the military Armed Forces Revolutionary Council from May 1997 to March 1998. He was soon returned to power after a military intervention by the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), led by Nigeria. Another phase of the civil war led to United Nations and British involvement in the country in 2000.

As President, Kabbah opened direct negotiations with the RUF rebels in order to end the civil war. He signed several peace accords with the rebel leader Foday Sankoh, including the 1999 Lome Peace Accord, in which the rebels, for the first time, agreed to a temporary cease fire with the Sierra Leone government. When the cease fire agreement with the rebels virtually collapsed, Kabbah campaigned for international assistance from the British, the United Nations Security Council, the African Union and the Economic Community of West African States to help defeat the rebels and restored peace and order in Sierra Leone.
Kabbah declared the civil war officially over in early 2002. Tens of thousands of Sierra Leoneans across the country took to the streets to celebrate the end of the war. Kabbah went on to easily win his final five year term in office in the presidential election later that year with 70.1% of the vote, defeating his main opponent Ernest Bai Koroma of the main opposition All People's Congress (APC). International observers declared the election free and fair.
Alhaji Ahmad Tejan Kabbah was born on February 16, 1932 in the rural town of Pendembu, Kailahun District in the Eastern Province of Sierra Leone to devout Muslim parents. Kabbah's father was an ethnic Mandingo and a deeply religious Muslim of Guinean descent and a native of Kambia District in the north of Sierra Leone. His mother was also a Muslim and a member of the Mende ethnic group from the Coomber family, a Chieftaincy ruling house based in the small rural town of Mobai, Kailahun District. Kabbah's first name Ahmad means "highly praised" or "one who constantly thanks God" in the Arabic language. Kabba himself was a devout Muslim and a member of the Mandingo ethnic group. Kabbah was a fluent speaker of his native Mandingo language and was also a fluent speaker of the local Susu language. Though born in the Kailahun District, Kabbah was largely raised in the capital Freetown.
Though a devout Muslim, Kabbah received his secondary education at the St. Edward's secondary school in Freetown, the oldest Catholic secondary school in Sierra Leone. Kabbah married a Catholic, the late Patricia Kabbah, (born Patricia Tucker), who was an ethnic Sherbro from Bonthe District in Southern Sierra Leone. Together the couple had five children. Kabbah received his higher education at the Cardiff College of Technology and Commerce, and University College Aberystwyth, Wales, in the United Kingdom, with a Bachelor's degree in Economics in 1959. He later studied law, and in 1969 he became a practicing Barrister-at-Law, member of the Honourable Society of Gray's Inn, London.

Kabbah spent nearly his entire career in the public sector. He served in the Western Area and in all the Provinces of Sierra Leone. He was a District Commissioner in Bombali and Kambia (Northern Province), in Kono (Eastern Province) and in Moyamba and Bo (Southern Province). He later became Permanent Secretary in various Ministries, including Trade and Industry, Social Welfare, and Education.

Kabbah was an international civil servant for almost two decades. After serving as deputy Chief of the West Africa Division of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in New York, he was reassigned in 1973 to head the Programme's operation in the Kingdom of Lesotho, as Resident Representative. He also headed UNDP operations in Tanzania and Uganda, and just before Zimbabwe's independence, he was temporarily assigned to that country to help lay the groundwork for cooperation with the United Nations system.

After a successful tour of duty in Eastern and Southern Africa, Kabbah returned to New York to head UNDP's Eastern and Southern Africa Division. Among other things, he was directly responsible for coordinating United Nations system assistance to liberation movements recognized by the Organization of African Unity (OAU), such as the African National Congress (ANC) of South Africa, and the South West African People's Organization (SWAPO) of Namibia.
Before his retirement in 1992, Kabbah held a number of senior administrative positions at UNDP Headquarters in New York, including those of Deputy Director and Director of Personnel, and Director, Division of Administration and Management.

After the military coup in 1992, Kabbah was asked to chair the National Advisory Council, one of the mechanisms set up by the military to alleviate the restoration of constitutional rule, including the drafting of a new constitution for Sierra Leone. He reputedly intended his return to Sierra Leone to be a retirement, but was encouraged by those around him and the political situation that arose to become more actively involved in the politics of Sierra Leone.


Kabbah was seen as a compromise candidate when he was put forward by the Mende-dominated Sierra Leone People's Party (SLPP) as their presidential hopeful in the 1996 Presidential and Parliamentary elections, the first multi-party elections in twenty-three years. The SLPP won the legislative vote overwhelmingly in the South and Eastern Province of the country, they split the vote with the UNPP in the Western Area and they lost in the Northern Province. On March 29, 1996, Alhaji Ahmad Tejan Kabbah was sworn in as President of Sierra Leone. Guided by his philosophy of "political inclusion" he appointed the most broad-based government in the nation's history, drawing from all political parties represented in Parliament, and ‘technocrats’ in civil society. One minority party did not accept his offer of a cabinet post.


 The President's first major objective was to end the rebel war which, in four years had already claimed hundreds of innocent lives, driven thousands of others into refugee status, and ruined the nation's economy. In November 1996, in Abidjan in Côte d'Ivoire, Kabbah signed a peace agreement with the rebel leader, former Corporal Foday Sankoh of the Revolutionary United Front (RUF).
The rebels reneged on the Agreement, resumed hostilities, and later perpetrated on the people of Sierra Leone what has been described as one of the most brutal internal conflicts in the world.
In 1996, a coup attempt involving Johnny Paul Koroma and other junior officers of the Sierra Leone Army was unsuccessful, but served as notice that Kabbah's control over military and government officials in Freetown was weakening.
In May 1997, a military coup forced Kabbah into exile in neighboring Guinea. The coup was led by the Armed Forces Revolutionary Council,  and Koroma was freed and installed as the head of state. In his Guinea exile, Kabbah began to marshal international support. Just nine months after the coup, Kabbah's government was revived as the military-rebel junta was removed by troops of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) under the command of the Nigerian led ECOMOG (ECOWAS Ceasefire Monitoring Group) and loyal civil and military defense forces, notably the Kamajos led by Samuel Hinga Norman. 

Once again, in pursuit of peace, President Kabbah signed the Lome Peace Accord with the RUF rebel leader Foday Sankoh on July 7, 1999. Notwithstanding repeated violations by the RUF, the document, known as the Lomé Peace Agreement, remained the cornerstone of sustainable peace, security, justice and national reconciliation in Sierra Leone. On January 18, 2002, at a ceremony marking the conclusion of the disarmament and demobilization of ex-combatants under the auspices of the United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL), he declared that the rebel war was over.

Although elected as president, he faced the task of fighting a brutal enemy. His most crucial military support was however from outside. Nigeria was the foremost participant as they crucially intervened under the leadership of the late General Sani Abacha, who was then the military head of his country. On February 1998, he sent his troops to push out the infamous military junta and rebel alliance of Johnny Paul Koroma and Sam Bockarie, known as Maskita. The rebels, however, continued their attempt to dethrone Kabbah's government, despite signing numerous peace accords with President Kabbah. In May 2000, Foday Saybanah Sankoh, who was then part of Kabbah's cabinet, kidnapped several UN troops, and then ordered his rebels to march to Freetown. Trouble was looming as the capital was once more threatened with another January 6, 1999 scenario. But with the timely intervention of the British Prime Minister, Tony Blair, 800 British troops were sent to Freetown to halt the impending rebel march to the city. President Kabbah was very grateful to the British Prime Minister, calling his intervention "timely" and one that "Sierra Leonean people will never forget".
As president, Kabbah opened direct negotiations with the RUF rebels in order to end the civil war. He signed several peace accords with the rebel leader Foday Sankoh, including the 1999 Lome Peace Accord, in which the rebels, for the first time agreed to a temporary cease fire with the Sierra Leone government. When the cease fire agreement with the rebels virtually collapsed, Kabbah campaigned for international assistant from the British, the United Nations Security Council, the African Union and the Economic Community of West African States to help defeat the rebels and restored peace and order in Sierra Leone.
In October 1999, the United Nations agreed to send peacekeepers to help restore order and disarm the rebels. The first of the 6,000-member force began arriving in December, and the United Nations Security Council voted in February 2000 to increase the force to 11,000, and later to 13,000. The UN peacekeeping forces were made up mainly of soldiers from the British special forces, India, Bangladesh and Pakistan. The African Union special forces sent to Sierra Leone to assist the government in fighting the rebels were made up mainly of soldiers from Nigeria, Guinea, Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Zambia and The Gambia. The international forces, led by the British troops, launched many successful military operations in repelling the RUF rebels and retook many of the areas of the country that were under the rebel control. The rebel lines of communication were severely destroyed and many senior rebel leaders were captured or fled the country, including the RUF leader Foday Sankoh, who was captured.
The fragile rebels finally agreed to be dissarmed.  In return the Sierra Leone government, lead by Kabbah, offered the rebels amnesty, career opportunities and mental institutions. The child rebels were reinstated in public schools, also offered mental institutions and reunited with family members. In 2001, United Nation forces moved in rebel-held areas and began to dissarm the rebels.
The civil war was officially declared over in early 2002 by Kabbah. Tens of thousands of Sierra Leoneans across the country took to the streets celebrating the end of the war. Kabbah went on to easily win his final five year term in office in the presidential election later that year with 70.1% of the vote, defeating his main opponent Ernest Bai Koroma of the main opposition All People's Congress (APC). International observers declared the election free and fair.


As the first leader after the civil war, Kabbah's main task was to disarm the different parties involved in the war and to build unity of the country.  Time magazine called Kabbah a "diamond in the rough" for his success as the first civilian elected ruler of Sierra Leone in 34 years and his role in the end of what became a decade long conflict from 1992 until 2000.  Although he himself was not considered corrupt, Kabbah was accused of an inability to deal with corrupt officials in his government many of whom were said to be profiting from the diamond trade. Kabbah struggled with this problem and invited the British to help set up an anti-corruption commission. 

Kabbah left office in September 2007 at the end of his second 5-year term. Constitutionally, he was not eligible to seek re-election. His Vice-President, Solomon Berewa, ran as the SLPP candidate to succeed Kabbah but was defeated by the opposition candidate Ernest Bai Koroma of the APC.
Kabbah was the head of the Commonwealth's observer mission for the December 2007 Kenyan election, as well as the head of the African Union's observer mission for the March 2008 Zimbabwean election.

Kabbah died at his residential home in Juba Hill, a middle class neighborhood in the west end of Freetown at the age of 82 on March 13, 2014, after a short illness.  Following the announcement of Kabbah's death, Sierra Leone's president Ernest Bai Koroma declared a week of national mourning; and he ordered the country's flags to be flown at half mast throughout Sierra Leone.
A state funeral was held for Kabbah. Kabbah's funeral service was attended by several former Heads of State, international delegations, former and current government officials, regardless of their political paties, and members of the civil services. 
On March 21, 2014, Kabbah's casket was carried by soldiers of the Sierra Leone Armed Forces into the Sierra Leone House of Parliament were members of parliament paid their last respects to the former Head of State. On March 23, 2014 Kabbah's casket was brought to the National Stadium, as thousands of Sierra Leoneans lined the streets of Freetown to say goodbye to their former leader. Kabbah's body was then carried by soldiers to the Mandingo Central Mosque in Freetown where an Islamic prayer service was held before he was finally laid to rest at the Kissi Road Cemetery, next to his mother Hajah Adama Kabbah's grave. 

Kabbah's wife Patricia, an ethnic Sherbro, died in 1998.  They had five children: Mariama, Abu, Michael, Isata and Tejan Jr., and three grandchildren: Simone, Isata, and Aidan.
 

Sunday, March 23, 2014

A00001 - Hunein Maassab, Developer of FluMist Vaccine










Photo

Hunein Maassab was inspired by the work of Jonas Salk to help improve human health, and succeeded after a half-century. CreditUniversity of Michigan, via Getty Images
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Hunein Maassab witnessed a transformational moment in public health when he was a young doctoral student at the University of Michigan. It happened on April 12, 1955, the day his mentor, Dr. Thomas Francis Jr., announced that he had completed a vast field trial involving nearly two million children to determine the effectiveness of what at the time seemed like a miracle drug: a vaccine for polio.
The vaccine had been developed by one of Dr. Francis’s former lab researchers, Jonas Salk, and Dr. Maassab had worked on the field trial, studying blood samples. Listening as Dr. Francis, a renowned virologist who had developed some of the first flu vaccines, described the study in a campus auditorium, Dr. Maassab knew the direction he wanted his life to take.
“That was his initial inspiration, that he wanted to develop something like that for humankind,” Dr. Rashid L. Bashshur, a close friend, said in an interview. “That would make his life worthwhile.”
Nearly half a century later, in June 2003 — after decades of starts and stops, of tinkering and test trials, of government reviews and patent applications and corporate twists — Dr. Maassab’s work came to fruition when the Food and Drug Administration declared a nasal-spray flu vaccine he had developed safe for healthy people ages 5 to 49 who are not pregnant. It carried the brand name FluMist.




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The FluMist vaccine is now approved for use in children as young as 2. CreditAstraZeneca

Not long afterward, the vaccine was approved for children as young as 2. It is now commonly administered in doctor’s offices and elsewhere, with many people choosing it over an injection.
Dr. Maassab, who was born in Syria and began using John as a first name after he moved to the United States in the late 1940s, was 87 when he died on Feb. 1 in North Carolina. His death, which was not immediately reported by his family, was confirmed by the University of Michigan.
Unlike previous flu vaccines, Dr. Maassab’s spray used a live version of the influenza virus that had been attenuated, or weakened, so as not to cause the flu. He also adapted the vaccine so that it would activate quickly upon entering the body in the relatively cool region of the nasal passages. Getting it right, and getting it approved, took a long, long time.
As early as 1960, he isolated a strain of flu virus for developing a vaccine. By 1967, he had written about his work in the journal Nature. Over the next three decades, working with several colleagues, particularly Dr. Brian R. Murphy at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, part of the National Institutes of Health, he completed the hard work of science — developing dozens of live attenuated viruses, documenting the genetic makeup of certain flu viruses, developing ways of quickly adjusting vaccines to the variants of the flu that emerge each year.
More than 70 studies and trials were conducted, covering more than 9,000 volunteers. By the late 1990s, tests showed that the vaccine successfully prevented the flu 85 percent of the time, a better rate than that for the injected, nonliving vaccine. (Tests since then have shown the nasal spray to be even more effective.) Pharmaceutical companies soon bought rights to develop the drug and made plans to market it as more tolerable to children.
“I feel in a sense that I have accomplished my life’s dream,” Dr. Maassab, who had retired, said after FluMist was finally approved. “I spent all my lifetime developing this vaccine.”
Dr. Maassab was born on June 11, 1926, in Damascus. His father was a jeweler. He enrolled at the University of Missouri, where he received a bachelor’s degree in biology in 1950 and a master’s in physiology and pharmacology in 1952. He then moved to Michigan, where he earned a master’s degree in public health in 1954 and his doctorate in epidemiology in 1956.
Survivors include his twin sons, Sammy and Fred. His wife, the former Hilda Zahka, died in 2006.
Dr. Maassab said he was motivated to study the flu by Dr. Salk, by Dr. Francis and by the mysteriousness of the deadly 1918 flu pandemic, which killed tens of millions of people worldwide, including many soldiers fighting in World War I.
“He had to make sure that it meets all kinds of criteria,” Dr. Bashshur, a professor at the University of Michigan School of Public Health, said of Dr. Maassab’s long pursuit of FluMist. “He would succeed on one thing and then have to pursue another. He always thought at the end of the day he was going to be able to perfect it. He just knew it. And he had to get the scientific data to support his position.”
He added: “You have to be smart, that goes without saying. But I think his unique characteristic was perseverance. Scientific discovery doesn’t come easy. It’s easy to give up, but he would just never give up.”

*****
Hunein Maassab (b.  June 11, 1926, Damascus,  - d.  February 1, 2014, North Carolina) was the developer of nasal spray flu vaccine.  He was born on June 11, 1926, in Damascus. His father was a jeweler. He enrolled at the University of Missouri, where he received a bachelor’s degree in biology in 1950 and a master’s in physiology and pharmacology in 1952. He then moved to Michigan, where he earned a master’s degree in public health in 1954 and his doctorate in epidemiology in 1956.


"John" Hunein F. Maassab was a Professor in the Department of Epidemiology at the University of Michigan since 1960 and served as the chairman from 1991-1997. He founded and directed the Hospital and Molecular Epidemiology program in the Department of Epidemiology. Dr. Maassab was a member of several scientific organizations including the American Public Health Association and the American Society of Microbiology and was a Fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology. Dr. Maassab had over 170 publications that range from studies on the basic biology of viruses to research on the development of methods to control viral infections.

Dr. Maassab was awarded patents for the development of a cold-adapted influenza virus and for an attenuated respiratory syncytial virus. Dr. Maassab received the 1997 Award for Science and Technology from Popular Science for the development of the cold-adapted influenza virus. This discovery led him to develop a flu vaccine that can be administered by a nasal spray as an alternative to the "flu shot."

Influenza, commonly called "the flu," is an infection of the respiratory tract caused by the influenza virus. Compared with most other viral respiratory infections, such as the common cold, influenza infection often causes a more severe illness. Most people who get the flu recover completely in one to two weeks, but some people develop serious and potentially life-threatening medical complications, such as pneumonia. Between 25-50 million people in the United States are infected each year with the influenza virus. In an average year, infection with influenza virus is associated with 20,000 deaths nationwide and more than 100,000 hospitalizations. Approximately 90 million workdays are lost and 30 million school days are missed each year as a result of influenza.

Vaccination can prevent disease caused by influenza. Unlike vaccines used against other viruses such as measles, mumps, rubella and varicella, people need to be vaccinated annually against influenza. This is because the influenza virus often changes its genetic composition to evade the immune system of its host. Thus, people are susceptible to influenza virus infection throughout life. The current vaccine used for flu is a "killed" virus vaccine that is administered by injection. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends a flu shot for healthy adults over age 50 and high-risk children and adults. Unfortunately, less than one percent of healthy children and less than 30 percent of healthy adults, are routinely vaccinated. Achieving adequate flu protection is difficult because each year a new vaccine must be developed that is appropriate for the specific strainsof influenza likely to circulate. Currently, there is concern n the public health community regarding the timely supply of vaccine for the coming flu season.

In 1967, Dr. Maassab published a paper in the journal Nature describing the adaptation of an influenza virus for growth at a low temperature in culture. Importantly, this "cold-adapted" virus does not grow at higher temperatures such as those found in the lungs. However, the cold-adapted virus can replicate in the nasal passages where the temperature is lower. The cold-adapted virus cannot survive in the lungs where the body temperature is higher, and therefore cannot cause disease. The limited viral growth seen in the nasal passages may stimulate an immune response that may protect a person from infections from influenza viruses. This protection also prevents the spread of influenza to others.

Dr. Maassab developed an intranasal cold-adapted live virus vaccine that may provide promising alternative to the "flu shot." Using a nasal mist, an attenuated (weakened) live form of the influenza virus is sprayed into the nasal passages, where influenza viruses enter the body.

The public health significance of this finding for the development of an influenza vaccine was apparent. By using nasal mist technology to eliminate the fear of injections, this method may offer the first practical way to immunize children and adults on a large scale annually in the near future.

Friday, March 7, 2014

Index Z

Zadeh, Lotfi  A00804

Zamperini, Louis  A00094

Ziolkowski, Ruth  A00068

Zumino, Bruno  A00102

Index Y

Yamaguchi, Yoshiko 'Shirley'  A00215

Yang, Olive  A00762

Yaqut ibn 'Abdullah al-Rumi al-Hamawi   A00074

ya Toivo, Andimba Toivo  A00735

Yazdi, Ibrahim  A00795

Yew, Lee Kuan  A00454

Young, Andrew  A00537

Yunupingu, Gurrumul  A00769

Index X

Index W

Walcott, Derek  A00697

Wali, Sima  A00825

Walker, A'Lelia  A00394

Walker, Moses Fleetwood  A00399

Walker, Solly  A00745

Wallace, Lois  A00029

Ward, Horace  A00623

Ware, Leon  A00683

Warren, Jerry  A00456

Washington, Dwayne "Pearl"  A00601

Washington, Pearl  A00601

Watson, Burton  A00743

Wattenberg, Ben  A00509

Webster, Ronald  A00659

Wembe, Papa  A00611

Wess, Frank  A00088

Wheeler, Kenny  A00214

White, Maurice  A00625

White, Nera  A00603

Whitehead, John  A00357

Whitney, Grace Lee  A00457

Widodo, Joko  A00100

Wilbur, Richard  A00824

Wilkins, Roger  A00694

Williams, Daniel Hale  A00503

Williams, Dell  A00441

Williams, Eddie  A00724

Williams, Elbert  A00506

Williams, John  A00486

Williams, John "Hot Rod"  A00588

Williams, Robin  A00133

Willkie, John  A00376

Wilpers, John  A00222

Wilson, Sandy  A00176

Win Tin, U  A00036

Winchester, Jesse   A00023

Winfield, Hemsley  A00551

Winter, Johnny  A00108

Winton, Nicholas  A00475

Withers, Iva  A00253

Wittels, Harris  A00372

Womack, Bobby  A00092

Wong, Tyrus  A00650

Wong Won, Christopher  A00759

Wood, Harold  A00591

Woolf, Ben  A00379

Wright, Simeon  A00796

Index V

Vadnais, Carol  A00181

Valmy, Christine  A00338

Van Peebles, Melvin  A00536

Vasconcelos, Nana  A00614

Verrett, Shirley  A00500

Vidov, Oleg  A00751

Vilanova, Tito  A00031

Von Bargen, Daniel  A00420

Von Kliest, Ewald Heinrich  A00230

Von Neumann, John  A00494

Vraciu, Alex  A00336

Index U

Ultra Violet  A00090

Index T

Tahse, Martin A00119

Talabani, Jalal  A00818

Taniguchi, Sumiteru  A00800

Tariq Aziz  A00467

Taylor, Bobby  A00777

Taylor, James  A00084

Taylor, Malik  A00609

Taylor, Meshach  A00091

Tenney, Lester  A00686

Terry, Clark  A00381

Thani, Hamad ibn Khalifa al-   A00647

Thani, Khalifa ibn Hamad al-   A00646

Thomas, Leslie  A00065

Thompson, Fred  A00576

Thompson, John  A00821

Thorpe, Jeremy  A00269

Thurmond, Nate  A00638

Tijerina, Reies  A00301

Todman, Terence  A00148

Todorov, Tzvetan  A00668

Toivo, Andimba Toivo ya  A00735

Tomlinson, Kenneth  A00046

Toner, John  A00233

Tor, Abba  A00673

Toussaint, Allen  A00584

Towne, Charles  A00313

Traficant, James  A00243

Tulchin, Hal  A00809

Turabi, Hassan al-  A00618

Turner, Alice  A00296

Turner, Darwin  A00407

Turner, Kevin  A00606

Tyson, Cicely  A00571

Tyson, Cyril  A00651

Index S

Sabah  A00262

Safra, Moise  A00085

Sahinkaya, Tahsin  A00480

Saint Germain, Fernand  A00166

Salem, Ali  A00555

Sanders, Charlie  A00485

Sarno, Louis  A00707

Sary, Ieng  A00231

Sasaki, Joshu  A00127

Satyarthi, Kailash  A00242

Saud al-Faisal  A00479

Savage, Gus  A00581

Scanlon, Lawrence  A00424

Schambelan, Ike  A00333

Schlesinger, James A00007

Schuller, Robert  A00436

Schulweis, Harold  A00276

Schuyler, Philippa  A00499

Scott, Jimmie  A00081

Scott, Lizabeth  A00330

Scott, Stuart  A00287

Sculthorpe, Peter  A00197

Segerstrom, Henry  A00405

Seif, Ahmed  A00168

Selassie, Haile  A00575

Seldes, Marian  A00251

Selebi, Jacob  A00294

Servier, Jacques  A00039

Shafer, Dirk  A00423

Shaheen, Jack  A00775

Sharif, Omar  A00477

Shaw, Charles Bobo  A00664

Shinn, Florence  A00495

Sidibe, Malick  A00592

Siebern, Norman  A00578

Simone, Nina  A00557

Sinden, Donald  A00204

Singleton, Raynoma Gordy  A00654

Sinofsky, Bruce  A00387

Slaughter, Fred  A00645

Sledge, Joni  A00689

Slice, Kimbo  A00627

Slovak, Mira  A00099

Sluizer, George  A00236

Smith, Ada "Bricktop"  A00559

Smith, Anthony  A00120

Smith, Bessie  A00561

Smith, Brian Sutton-  A00442

Smith, Dean  A00304

Smith, George Bundy  A00783

Smith, Huston  A00652

Smith, Roger  A00737

Smith, Sylvia  A00217

Smyrl, David  A00604

Sneed, Ann  A00744

Snow, Clyde  A00062

Soloff, Lew  A00428

Sperling, John  A00169

Sprinkle, Ed  A00128

Stassen, Glen  A00045

Steigman, Gary  A00734

Steinhagen, Ruth Ann  A00342

Stern, Stewart  A00335

Sternglass, Ernest  A00373

Stevens, Rick  A00801

Stewart, Chuck  A00662

Stewart, Mary A00058

Stokes, Louis  A00525

Stone, Henry  A00149

Strange, Steve  A00337

Suarez, Adolfo A00004

Suleiman, Fadwa  A00793

Sullivan, Louis Wade  A00566

Summitt, Pat  A00629

Suter, Bob  A00199

Sutton-Smith, Brian  A00442

Szoka, Edmund  A00162

Index R

Rafsanjani, Ali Akbar Hashemi  A00656

Rahman, Omar Abdel  A00675

Rainer, Luise  A00279

Ramini, Craig  A00321

Ramos, Sugar  A00797

Rana, Mario Vazquez  A00352

Ratner, Marina  A00766

Ravenscroft, Raphael  A00260

Rawls, Lou  A00550

Reagan, Nancy  A00624

Rebhorn, James A00005

Reeb, James  A00322

Rees , Roger  A00476

Reese, Della  A00498

Revere, Paul  A00235

Reynolds, Albert  A00165

Reynolds, Bruce  A00190

Rice, Mack  A00632

Richard, Mary Ellen Moore- 000005

Richards, Robert  A00143

Ringgold, Faith  A00378

Rivers, Joan  A00172

Robinson, Frank M.  A00105

Roche, Maggie  A00660

Rodrigues, Sergio  A00193

Rodriguez, Augie  A00123

Rodriguez, Raul  A00371

Rojas, Lorena  A00358

Rosen, Al  A00444

Rosenblat, Herman  A00374

Roth, William  A00086

Rouhani, Hassan  A00141

Roussos, Demis  A00318

Rubin, Lillian   A00104

Rubino, Carl  A00326

Ryckmans, Pierre  A00139

Index Q

Qasmi, Ahmed Nadeem  A00109

Quawas, Rula  A00773

Index P

Papa Wembe  A00611

Pardo, Don  A00160

Paredes, Providencia  A00426

Parker, Everett  A00545

Parlan, Horace  A00682

Parseghian, Ara   A00778

Paterson, Basil  A00025

Patton, Mel  A00057

Paul, Terrance  A00208

Paul, Billy   A00617

Payton, Benjamin  A00644

Peebles, Melvin Van  A00536

Pena, Elizabeth  A00257

Pendleton, Clarence  A00349

Penniman, "Little Richard"  A00535

Petersen, Otto A00026

Pfau, Ruth  A00789

Pickett, Bill  A00538

Pirie, Robert  A00312

Pirsig, Robert  A00722

Polisi, Sal  A00303

Popkin, Ruth  A00290

Porcaro, Mike  A00450

Powell, Charles  A00183

Pratchett, Terry  A00435

Preval, Rene  A00685

Primakov, Yevgeny  A00482

Prince  A00605

Prince Buster A00643

Pundak, Ron  A00022

Index O

O'Beirne, Kate  A00723

Odetta  A00377

Oliver, Paul  A00794

Omar, Muhammad  A00533

Ondricek, Miroslav  A000461

Onyango, Zeituni A00010

Osotimehin, Babatunde  A00738

Owens, Charles  A00812

Index N

Nabil Maleh  A00621

Nagel, Steven  A00157

Nakajima, Haruo   A00785

Nash, Alicia  A00493

Nash, John  A00492

Nazim al-Haqqani  A00043

Nehru, Shobha  A00741

Nelson, Novella  A00805

Nelson, Prince Rogers  A00605

Neugebauer, Gerry  A00244

Newhouse, Robert  A00116

Nimeiry, Gaafar  A00586

Nimoy, Leonard  A00417

Nir, Yehuda  A00113

Niven, Penelope  A00198

Noble, Kenneth  A00114

Noel, Magali  A00481

Noether, Emmy  A00788

Noonan, John  A00719

Nunnelee, Alan  A00334

Index M

Maassab, Hunein  A00001

Mabee, Carleton  A00277

MacCracken, Mary  A00151

McDaniels, Jim  A00803

Maciel, Leonel  A00513

Macnee, Patrick A00469

Madoff, Andrew  A00186

Magruder, Jeb  A00063

Malcolm X  A00530

Maleh, Nabil  A00621

Malone, Moses  A00556

Mandela, Nelson  A00529

Mangum, Robert  A00254

Manigat, Leslie  A00093

Manning, Mildred  A00227

Manning, Patrick  A00631

Marrero, Connie  A00037

Marshall, Helen  A00684

Marshall, Robert O.  A00386

Mapp, Dollree  A00271

Marks, Gilbert  A00272

Masire, Ketumile  A00750

Masloff, Sophie  A00159

Mason, Anthony  A00409

Massimino, Rollie  A00807

Mathison, Melissa  A00580

May, Lee  A00771

Maynard, Dori  A00390

Maysles, Albert  A00422

Mazrui, Ali  A00256

Mazzone, Walter  A00170

McBarnette, Yvette Fay Francis-   A00594

McBrien, Richard  A00305

McCullough, Colleen  A00306

McKinley, William Thomas  A00406

McKuen, Rod  A00319

McMahon, Jenna  A00431

McNamara, Joseph  A00206

McPherson, James Alan  A00639

Medicine Crow, Joseph  A00597

Mekurya, Getatchew  A00593

Meyers, Dave  A00564

Mills, Harriette  A00599

Minoso, Minnie  A00413

Mirzakhani, Maryam  A00138, A00758

Mitchell, Arthur  A00552

Mitchell, Richard "Blue"  A00364

Moakley, Terence  A00213

Mobley, Mary Ann  A00270

Mock, Jerrie  A00246

Monbouquette, Bill  A00307

Monroe, Meechy  A00774

Moody, Anne  A00359

Moore, Mary Tyler  A00666

Moore-Richard, Mary Ellen  A00219

Moran, Erin  A00704

Morano, Emma  A00718

Morawetz, Cathleen  A00787

Morrison, Junie  A00676

Morrison, Toni  A00398

Morton, Bruce  A00182

Moseley, Winston  A00596

Moser, Lida  A00187

Mother Divine  A00690

Mowat, Farley  A00048

Moy, Sylvia  A00715

Mroz, John  A00180

Muhammad Ali  A00626

Muhammad, Idris  A00135

Muhammad Omar  A00533

Mullah Muhammad Omar  A00533

Murphy, Charlie  A00713

Myerson, Bess  A00281

Index L

Laboriel, Johnny  A00511

Lambert, Margaret Bergmann  A00768

Lambert, Jerry  A00368

Landau, David  A00315

Lang, Eugene  A00706

Langguth, Arthur  A00177

Larson, Charles  A00140

Larue, Gerald  A00239

Lassnig, Maria A00051

Lavallade, Carmen de  A00497

Lavong, Reggie  A00819

Laxman, R. K.  A00317

LeBaron, Eddie  A00437

Lee, Ann  A00496

Lee, Christopher  A00470

Lee Kuan Yew  A00454

Lennie, Angus  A00210

Lewis, Brenda  A00814

Liuzzo, Viola  A00323

Lloyd, Earl  A00400

Lombardy, William  A00823

Lomu, Jonah  A00585

Lopez, Julia  A00512

Lopez, William  A00241

Lottman, Herbert  A00201

Lucey, Patrick  A00055

Lumpe, Jerry  A00156

Lyubimov, Yuri  A00247

Index K

Kabbah, Ahmad Tejan  A00002

Kahn, Guinter  A00211

Kahn, Irving  A00396

Kakungulu, Semei  A00462

Kasem, Casey  A00089

Katayama, Yutaka  A00384

Kathrada, Ahmed  A00692

Katz, Michael  A00192

Kaufman, Bel  A00122

Kaufmann, Christine  A00698

Kawara, On  A00107

Kay, Andrew  A00194

Kayahan  A00458

Keating, Charles  A00146

Keepnews, Orrin  A00411

Kelley, William Melvin  A00669

Kemal, Yasar  A00408

Kemp, Johnny  A00453

Keough, Donald  A00385

Kerekou, Mathieu  A00567

Kersey, Jerome  A00360

Keyes, Irwin  A00487

Keyser, F. Ray  A00383

Khalifa ibn Hamad al-Thani  A00646

Khan, Mohamed  A00640

Khanh, Emmanuelle  A00679

Khashoggi, Adnan  A00732

Khattala, Ahmed Abu  A00082

Kiarostami, Abbas  A00634

Kiel, Richard  A00203

Kigeli V   A00648

Kimes, Sante  A00070

King, B. B.  A00466

King, Ben E.  A00464

King, Martin Luther  A00531

Kiram, Esmail  A00553

Klose, Lillian  A00195

Klotman, Phyllis  A00448

Koch, Ed  A00280

Koch, Tom  A00460

Kohl, Helmut  A00756

Koo, Juliana Young  A00733

Krauser, June  A00144

Kumana, Eroni  A00150

Kushi, Michio  A00286